Shelf Floorstanding Empress Temperance Drivers Tweeters/Bass Drivers

The Empress' Lab Results     Kit Description     Building Instruction

The frequency response of the individual drivers

The frequency responses of the standard and high-end version differ only in a few details. The frequency responses of the standard version is shown below complementing one another well also from a phase point of view (sum is 6 dB above intersection). Empress Standard
  Picture 1: frequency response of the Empress' individual drivers, total frequency response in purple

The crossover to the tweeter shows a slight dip, but it's hardly audible (the human hear is quite sensitive towards exaggeration, but not towards drops).

The total frequency response in comparison to the high-end Empress (with HT 1)

The high-end version's drop is not as distinctive, but shows a resonance peak at 20 kHz, not audible according to Klang+Ton. Empress
  Picture 2: Empress standard (green) and Empress high-end with Newtronics HT 1 (purple)

The Empress' impedance response

Below the impedance response and electrical phase. Since the total impedance of the three bass drivers is considerably below 3 Ohm only powerful and stable amplifiers should be used. Empress Impedanz und Phase
  Picture 3: the Empress' impedance response (blue) and electrical phase (red)

Harmonic Distortion

It's extremely important for a high-end speaker to have a low harmonic distortion. Therefore, this value was measured at 80, 85, 90 and 95 dB (1 metre) over the entire frequency range.

First, for better differentiation the non-linear distortion 2nd order. Important is the gap between the two lines of the sae colour. The upper line depicts the key note, the lower one the distortion part. A gap of 40 dB is good, 60 dB is exemplary. It's noticeable that at 95 dB the distortion is still good, at lower levels it's even excellent. Below 200 Hz the distortion is somewhat higher due to the considerable excursion of the drivers, a symptom common to most drivers.

Klang+Ton magazine regards the distortion values in the diagram below above 200 Hz (in Klang+Ton 5/2007) as absolutely outstanding. Empress Verzerrungen 2. Ordnung
  Picture 4: the levels in different colours, the upper line depicts the key note, the lower one the distortion part.

Here the values for the 3rd harmonic distortion: Empress Verzerrungen 3. Ordnung
  Picture 5: the levels in different colours, the upper line depicts the key note, the lower one the distortion part.

The Waterfall Spectrum

A quick decay of a short note is desirable. Ideally, a tone should have decayed after a few milliseconds. The diagram shows that the Empress achieves this with flying colours. All frequencies above 500 Hz dropped by 20 dB after 2 milliseconds. Empress Wasserfall (Abklingspektrum)
  Picture 6: the Empress' waterfall spectrum

The Empress' Description     Building Instruction